Wednesday, 22 February 2017

How was the Internet as an Industry developed in India


New media is a broad term which emerged during the latter part of the 20th century and refers to ‘on demand access’ to content anytime, anywhere on any digital device also providing interactive user feedback thus leading to creative participation and community formation.

What is new Media

Changing ownership patterns in India-
Indian media has decades of history in disseminating the information through various media tools. In January 1780, James Augustine Hickey started the first newspaper, a weekly, variously called as the ‘Bengal Gazette’ or ‘the Calcutta General Adviser’ or ‘Hickey’s Gazette’. He is still regarded as the father of Indian Journalism. Since the inception of Bengal Gazette, the Indian press emerged day to day and became very strong in the public to disseminating the information. Today is over 200 years old history. Indian Radio is about 100 years old and Doordarshan is about 50 years old. Before Independence in India, Media was a mission. Its mission was to free India from the clutches of foreign rulers, the British. There were many restrictions on Media in the form of regulations.

The emerging ‘New Media’ opened gates for all sorts of opinions in many ways by the general public. The emergence of social networking, blogging, photography has given a new power to people to spread their views all around the world. From the individual ownership of newspapers, media witnessed conglomerates and partnerships. New media gave a full new meaning to ownership where a blogger is the sole owner to the information he is disseminating and therefore controls the information he wants the people to know. His writing approaches are governed by his writing skills. Citizen journalism has captured attention and even broadcast media rely on citizen journalists to some extent. By sensing the active participation of people in new media, news channels started their own news websites which they updated regularly to attract more audience and to maintain the existing ones. New media brought news as a firsthand account to the people. Even the newspapers came up with their e- papers and online papers. E papers had identical stories as the main print edition whereas the idea of online papers came up to suit the people who wanted to go through news and not spend much time on detailed stories. Online papers had news which was provided to the people in few lines rather than detailed paragraphs.

In the era of globalization when the new technologies are introduced, the media computer-based and network-centered technologies emerged and are being adopted by news organizations all around the world. Media organizations are completely dependent on the new technologies to gather and transmit the news. In the past three decades, numerous ethical concerns and issues about digital journalism and new technologies began to come to the forefront of journalism around the world. Among the early concerns to be debated and discussed, manipulation of images as digital photography and picture editing became increasingly common than before or after 90‟s. Privacy issues in the digital era have also created a concern among the journalists and consumers of the news media.


The internet is a global group of connected networks that allows people to access information and services. It includes the world wide web, electronic mail, file transfer protocol(FTP), internet relay chat(IRC) and USENET(user network news services).

It was in 1991, when the first website was developed in India. Since then, the web development industry has never looked back. Intelligence combined with determination, form the base of the web industry. In 1995, internet access to India was restricted to a few major cities and everything was in the hands of the government. At that time only VSNL provided internet connectivity which was erratic and there was very little bandwidth. Indian users paid US$2 per hour and leased lines were available at over $2000 per month for a 24kpbs line. As a result there were barely 150000 internet connections in India.

None of this dampened the enthusiasm of dozens of entrepreneurs who jumped into the fray. There people like Ajit Balakrishnan( , Rajesh Jain( and Haresh Tibrewala and Sanjay Mehta( who gave into the lure of a networked world.

What made things easier was the availability was the availability of money to setup internet businesses. Many foreign venture capital firms had set up shops in India. By 2000, positive investor sentiment about the net was fuelling the growth of all kinds of websites- marriages, games, gossip, work, cooking, working women and so on. Journalists quit their jobs for internet companies that paid them three times than what they were receiving plus a fancy designation. A plain reporter could become “head of content” in a website selling plumbing pipes or office stationery. By 2000, almost all popular companies had their websites and many dodged in fear of being left behind. There was no big crash in India but the ‘dot com crash’ affected the market. It was about bloated valuations and share prices of internet companies finally falling to reflect the companies- many non revenue generating companies had hitched the ride on the back of the investors who were supposed to know better. The venture capital sentiment turned against the internet companies and finally the flow of capital dried up. Dozens of web businesses disappeared overnight or ran out of funds. And the ones who survived did so either because they were solid businesses to start with or because they changed their business models.

There has been an amazing increase in the extension to the basic web production in the last few years. Use of still graphics, animated graphics, has increased remarkably. Web has become more interesting with the arrival of 3 D technology of VRML(Virtual Reality Mark up Land page) The `cost of developing a website has become very cheap. There are many web development systems available to the public free of charge to help in development of this industry. Websites like Facebook, Twitter has already started showing high popularity in the field of communication & social-networking. The increasing trend of matrimonial and dating sites have led people browse more and more in these sites. Sites like gives updates of all the eligible jobs and through that people end up in a suitable company. Along with online buying in sites like snapdeal, another concept of selling your used products have come up in which people can sell their undesirable products and earn some revenue. OLx is one such example which has gained a lot of popularity by extensive advertising. The very famous line “OLx p bech do” was seen being used by social media users. It has been estimated that 14% of the advertising revenue is spent on online advertising.

As per a Study done by Nielsen---
20 million people look for job openings every month.
Linked in has more than 9 million users in India.
21 million users in India use matrimonial and dating sites to find their partners.
54 million people check online reviews of brands before buying.
60 million people want information of various brands via internet.
10 million are aware of the brands that are there on social media.

India's internet--
• 2% - Number of rural Indians Using the internet.
• 25% - Growth in Indian internet users in India over the past 12 months.
• 59% - Number of Indians who only access the internet via mobile devices.

What Indians do online--
• 3 hours - Average time an Indian net user spends on social media.
• 13m - Number of Indians registered on matrimonial or dating sites.
• 70% of Indian internet users who watch online videos.
(Source: wearesocial)

Poor Internet connectivity, but phenomenal mobile growth
The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India estimates that there will be an additional 200 million new mobile subscribers in the coming year. According to research aggregated by, there are more than 898 million mobile subscribers in India, 292 million of these living in rural areas.

The same data showed that 346 million Indian mobile users had subscribed to data packages, with more than half of all internet users in the country accessing the web via their mobile phone.The increase in uptake of 3G and 2G services in India will also help get more people online. However, there are still issues getting this kind of connectivity into remote areas.

Therefore, we see that internet as an industry has developed to a great extent in India. The new advertisements of mobile phones showing not only the youth but also the old people being attracted to games and other services that a cell phone offers also contributes to the number of people accessing internet via phone.


In India the web is now established as a mass market media channel for the wealthy. Email has become a mass market media channel for office workers and professional classes.

Mobile (for SMS) is a mass market media channel across many demographics, but while mobile use is very high, mobile devices and the web will not properly converge until late 2010. The main changes in internet access have happened in the last five years and the internet has become an essential part of office life, and plays a key role in many homes. The number of people with access continues to rise, but so too does the time they spend online. Broadband access is growing fast, but the number of home connections lags behind comparable markets; however although the number of connections is low, a large number of people in high-end demographics have access. Significant infrastructure problems remain, creating a high cost for access compared to average wage rates.

The growth of internet use in India is attracting the focus of global brands, as well as changing the way national firms market themselves. The changes have been fast, and today to reach upmarket and professional audiences the internet has to be a core part of the strategy.