Tuesday, 21 February 2017

Linear editing Techniques

Linear editing-


Linear editing

Linear video editing is a video editing post-production process of selecting, arranging and modifying images and sound in a predetermined, ordered sequence. Regardless of whether it was captured by a video camera, tapeless camcorder, or recorded in a television studio on a video tape recorder (VTR) the content must be accessed sequentially. This is the post production editing that follows studio programme which is a little bit more than inserting corrections and adding specially filmed sequences through the whole range of videotape formats using domestic equipments like VHS or Hi- 8. It is edited off-line which is done by a VT editor.

Techniques-
1. Cut and splice method-  the magnetic tape on which both sound and picture is recorded can be cut across and joined in another tape in a way somewhat similar to the splicing of a cinefilm. In the video tape case, the junction is however a butt-join held together by an adhesive tape instead of the overlapped, cemented join with cinefilm.
But no pictures are directly visible on the tape and in order to identify camera shots, the tape has to run on a normal speed machine. The sound-track can be examined on a slow speed. Once the required picture/sound cutting point is found , this is marked on the tape with a felt pencil. This tape is then unlaced from the VTR machine and the ‘magnetic developer ‘pointed into a tape surface.

2. Vision /Sound Displacement-  While recording, the video tape passes from the left hand feed spool to the right hand feed spool i.e. it moves from left to right across the front of the machine. The design of the tape deck is such that the sound head stands to the vision of the right head.  As a result, there is a time difference between the arrival of a particular piece of tape at the vision hed and its arrival at the sound head.

3. Sound dubbing over the splice- By the use of this facility, unwanted lip movements on dialogue can be avoided.

4. Sound dubbing over a dialogue splice- This is used to make satisfactory dialogue splices in the middle of dialogue sequences. The process is to re-record one/fourth inch of the first few seconds of the required sound from another tape. This sound is then dubbed as before on to the end of the required sound of the first tape at the same time erasing the already unwanted sound there. This process of transfer of sound to ¼” of the magnetic sound track constitutes the creation of the magnetic recording, enabling this sound to be manipulated independently of the vision.

5. The L-Shaped Cut-   It has been often suggested by the visitors to the video tape area that L-shaped cuts could be mad in the video tape to compensate for the displacement problem, Although such a physical cutting of the tape is quite impracticable, that is what is done in effect by dubbing the incoming sound across the cut. The process of dubbing- across-the-cut need not add much time to the editing but it is a complication that can be avoided by adopting certain procedures in the studio whilst the programme is being originally recorded.

Usage-While computer based Video editing software has been adopted throughout most of the commercial, film, industrial and consumer video industries, linear video tape editing is still commonplace in television station newsrooms for the production of television news, and medium-sized production facilities which haven’t made the capital investment in newer technologies. News departments often still use linear editing because they can start editing tape and feeds from the field as soon as received since no additional time is spent capturing material as is necessary in non-linear editing systems and systems that are able to digitally record and edit simultaneously have only recently become affordable for small operations.

Aesthetics- Although there are many different configurations of linear editing systems, all consist of at least three elements: a playback tape machine, a record tape machine, and an edit controller that operates the two tape machines in synchronization. The edit controller allows the editor to perform basic videotape recorder functions such as playback, record, fast forward, rewind, and search on each machine that is part of the editing system. The editor also uses the edit controller to set in and out back machine, a record machine, and an edit controller, is called a cuts-only system. As its name implies, this type of system is capable only of editing cut transitions between shots.

Differences between the two systems-  

Working on a nonlinear editing system is like working with a sophisticated word processor. Using a computer screen and a mouse you can randomly cut and past segments and move them around until you are satisfied with the result.
Working on a linear editing system is a bit like using a typewriter to type a term paper; you need to assemble everything in the proper sequence as you go along. After it's all on paper (or in this case recorded), adding, deleting or rearranging things can be a major problem.
With nonlinear editing the video and audio segments are not permanently recorded as you go along as they are in linear editing. The edit decisions exist in computer memory as a series of internal digital markers that tell the computer where to look for segments on the hard disk.
This means that at any point you can instantly check your work and make adjustments. It also means that you can easily experiment with audio and video possibilities.