Showing posts with label New Media. Show all posts
Showing posts with label New Media. Show all posts

Monday, 13 March 2017

Cyber-Activism and Major Social Movements



This is aimed to understand the different aspects of the phenomenon called Cyber-Activism and the way it unfolded during major social movements across the world.

Some of the major movements covered were:

  • The Indignants Movement of Spain and Greece - It consisted of the ‘common’ people protesting against unemployment, corruption and inflation by occupying public spaces. Facebook and Twitter helped in the coordination of protests, restoration of access to prohibited online platforms, enabling access to classified documents, etc. Also, this movement exhibited lesser known characteristics of Cyberactivism like post-movement forgetfulness, movements as performances and consensus mobilization.
  • The Occupy Wall Street Movement - Again, a movement that was majorly active on the social network. However, when everyone talked about the freedom of the internet and the democratization of the web, the government kept a close track of the movement through close monitoring of the web activity of the people who were involved in the movement. Besides blocking active accounts and cutting power supply of the meeting area, the movement was also declared as potential criminal activity alert. The irony lies here in the fact that the web which was touted as a democratic medium ultimately became the bane of the movement.
  • Arab Spring - This was another movement which led to the overthrow of the oppressive regimes  and to the conduct of parliamentary elections in many Arab countries.  Arabs created virtual forums for citizen journalism which enabled ordinary citizens document not only the protests, but also the underlying causes that led to the eruption of these protests in the first place, such as governmental brutality, limitations on freedom of expression and flaws in the political system. The facebook pages and the blogs helped in disseminating information to the rest of the world.

Saturday, 4 March 2017

What are the basic characteristics of new media as an industry?

The key characteristics of new media as an industry are—

characteristics of new media

Digital vs. Analogue

  • All input data - in contrast to analogue media - is not converted into another physical object, but decoded and received as screen displays or can be obtained as hard copy.
  • Digital media do not represent a complete break, but are a continuation and extension of traditional analogue media.
  • Analogue media tend to be fixed (physical objects). Whereas digital media tend towards a permanent state of flux.
  • The relationship of the author/performer/creator and reader/spectator/interpreter becomes blurred and give way to a reading / writing continuum.




  • It is an opportunity to manipulate and intervene in media.
  • Under the idea of interaction, new modes of engagement such as playing, experimenting and exploring arise. Interactivity provides a platform to engage with variety of people and know different cultures and traditions.
  • Examples for interactivity:

1. hypertextual navigation
2. Immersive navigation
3. Registrational interactivity
4. Interactive communications
  • Problems arising from interactivity:

1. Interpretation & definition problems: How do we define interactive text? (Experiences can differ between users)
2. Problems for producers: how much control should be given to the user, how much should be retained?



Describes a text which provides a network of links to other texts that are ‘outside, above, beyond’ itself (e.g. Wikipedia articles).
Characteristics: Easy and instantaneous access, instantly accessible links, interventions and manipulations possible, interactivity, jump-link capability, totally beyond the author’s control.
‘Cybertextuality’: Machine, text and reader/user are all equally implicated in the production of meaning.


New media are dispersed in comparison to mass media that is no clear distinction between consumers and producers.
Consumption: Decentralised, individual, not bound to time and place, many input/output connections.
Production: within everyday life (photos, homepages, word documents,…), distinction between producer and consumer has broken down, breakdown of the professionals category.    Participation: from active interpretation to actual production.
New media gives a chance to everyone to be the controller of their webpages and accounts and thereby the people can express themselves freely. Blogs are a perfect examples of this.


‘virtual reality’ is applied to several different forms of media and image technologies simultaneously:
‘Virtual’ in discussions of the internet and the World Wide Web; immersive, 3D, and spectacular technologies; screen-based multimedia and in the transformation and convergence of older media as in digital cinema, video, and computer animation.

‘Virtual’ as a feature of post-modern cultures in which so many aspects of everyday.
Experiences are technologically simulated.
Websites like secondlife give the people an opportunity to live another life on the internet and do all the activities of everyday life virtually.


1. Numerical representation
Because all new media objects are composed of digital code, they are essentially numerical
Representations. That is, all new media objects can be described mathematically and can be manipulated via algorithms. According to Manovich, the key difference between old and new media is that new media is programmable. The closest we can get to the ‘materiality’ of a new media object is to talk about the numbers and formulas that constitute it. In new media compositions, the opposition between visual and verbal is bridged in the sense that both are code—both image and text are programmed and programmable.

2. Modularity
Pixels, images, text, sounds, frames, code—independent elements like these combine to form a new media object. These elements can be independently modified and reused in other works. The modularityof new media is related to the modular character of structural computer programming, such as we find in Java and C++, in which independent functions or subroutines are brought together in larger programs. In Photoshop, modularity is most evident in layers; a single image can be composed of many layers, each of which can be treated as an entirely independent and separate entity.

3. Automation
Automation is seen in computer programs that allow users to create or modify media objects using templates or algorithms. Automation is evident in the filters, special effects, and other operations in Photoshop that allow users to modify images.

4. Transcoding
Transcoding is the most substantial consequence of the computerization of media. Transcoding designates the blend of computer and culture, of "traditional ways in which human culture modeled the world and the computer's own means of representing it".Technically, transcoding refers to the translation of a new media object from one format to another (for example, text to sound) or the adaptation of new media for display on different devices.
The computerization of culture is a process of transcoding, as “cultural categories or concepts are substituted, on the level of meaning and/or language, by new ones that derive from the computers ontology, epistemology, and pragmatics”.

Wednesday, 22 February 2017

Do you see the New Media as a Future of news in India

New Media as a Future

Three hundred years ago news travelled by word of mouth or letter, and circulated in taverns and coffee houses in the form of pamphlets, newsletters and broadsides. The Coffee houses particularly are very commodious for a free Conversation, and for reading at an easier Rate all manner of printed News. Everything changed in 1833 when the first mass-audience newspaper, the New York Sun, pioneered the use of advertising to reduce the cost of news, thus giving advertisers access to a wider audience. At the time of the launch America's bestselling paper sold just 4,500 copies a day; the Sun, with its steam press, soon reached 15,000.

The penny press, followed by radio and television, turned news from a two-way conversation into a one-way broadcast, with a relatively small number of firms controlling the media. At present, new media has occupied the market. In many cases, first hand report is derived from new media because the television discusses in detail in its major shows and the print edition of that news comes the next day, whereas in new media, news is updated in a fraction of second. Even if the earthquake tremors are felt in Delhi, people who didn’t feel it can see the update in another minute and be aware of the scene. The internet is making news more participatory, social, diverse and partisan, reviving the discursive ethos of the era before mass media. That will have profound effects on society and politics.

In India, people especially the youth, have been giving up newspapers and TV news and keeping up with events in profoundly different ways so much so that newspapers have come up with their digital versions. Most strikingly, ordinary people are increasingly involved in compiling, sharing, filtering, discussing and distributing news. Twitter lets people anywhere report what they are seeing. Classified documents are published in their thousands online. Mobile-phone footage of Arab uprisings and American tornadoes is posted on social-networking sites and shown on television newscasts. Even in the Indian scenario, politicians use social media to gather fans and voters by creating their pages on social networking sites. News goes viral over the internet and gain importance and people and thus becomes successful. For example the Anna Hazare campaign and the Delhi gang rape case. “Crowdsourcing” projects bring readers and journalists together to sift through troves of documents. Social-networking sites help people find, discuss and share news with their friends.

And it is not just readers who are challenging the media elite. Technology firms including Google, Facebook and Twitter have become important (some say too important) conduits of news. Celebrities and world leaders, including Barack Obama and Amitabh Bacchan, publish updates directly via social networks; many countries now make raw data available through “open government” initiatives. The internet lets people read newspapers or watch television channels from around the world: the Guardian, a British newspaper, now has more online readers abroad than at home. The web has allowed new providers of news, from individual bloggers to sites such as the Huffington Post, to rise to prominence in a very short space of time. And it has made possible entirely new approaches to journalism, such as that practised by WikiLeaks, which provides an anonymous way for whistleblowers to publish documents. The news agenda is no longer controlled by some news channels but with the coming up of citizen journalism, new media as a news provider has gained momentum.

New media has a big advantage over traditional media regarding the issue of price. New media comes free to the people and they can access news and be aware of all the issues happening in the world. The events can be watched again and again whereas in television, news can’t be watched again and again.

With the success of the technological revolution, people have become gizmofreaks that has played a strong role in allowing people to access news anywhere and everywhere and know both the sides of the story.

Therefore, new media as a medium of news is flourishing and in sometime, it might conquer the traditional media. India, being a democracy gives people a right to freedom of speech and expression. So if the two girls got arrested for speaking against Bal Thackeray on Facebook, new media definitely gives a chance to debate and discuss and fight for the freedom.

How was the Internet as an Industry developed in India


New media is a broad term which emerged during the latter part of the 20th century and refers to ‘on demand access’ to content anytime, anywhere on any digital device also providing interactive user feedback thus leading to creative participation and community formation.

What is new Media

Changing ownership patterns in India-
Indian media has decades of history in disseminating the information through various media tools. In January 1780, James Augustine Hickey started the first newspaper, a weekly, variously called as the ‘Bengal Gazette’ or ‘the Calcutta General Adviser’ or ‘Hickey’s Gazette’. He is still regarded as the father of Indian Journalism. Since the inception of Bengal Gazette, the Indian press emerged day to day and became very strong in the public to disseminating the information. Today is over 200 years old history. Indian Radio is about 100 years old and Doordarshan is about 50 years old. Before Independence in India, Media was a mission. Its mission was to free India from the clutches of foreign rulers, the British. There were many restrictions on Media in the form of regulations.

The emerging ‘New Media’ opened gates for all sorts of opinions in many ways by the general public. The emergence of social networking, blogging, photography has given a new power to people to spread their views all around the world. From the individual ownership of newspapers, media witnessed conglomerates and partnerships. New media gave a full new meaning to ownership where a blogger is the sole owner to the information he is disseminating and therefore controls the information he wants the people to know. His writing approaches are governed by his writing skills. Citizen journalism has captured attention and even broadcast media rely on citizen journalists to some extent. By sensing the active participation of people in new media, news channels started their own news websites which they updated regularly to attract more audience and to maintain the existing ones. New media brought news as a firsthand account to the people. Even the newspapers came up with their e- papers and online papers. E papers had identical stories as the main print edition whereas the idea of online papers came up to suit the people who wanted to go through news and not spend much time on detailed stories. Online papers had news which was provided to the people in few lines rather than detailed paragraphs.

In the era of globalization when the new technologies are introduced, the media computer-based and network-centered technologies emerged and are being adopted by news organizations all around the world. Media organizations are completely dependent on the new technologies to gather and transmit the news. In the past three decades, numerous ethical concerns and issues about digital journalism and new technologies began to come to the forefront of journalism around the world. Among the early concerns to be debated and discussed, manipulation of images as digital photography and picture editing became increasingly common than before or after 90‟s. Privacy issues in the digital era have also created a concern among the journalists and consumers of the news media.


The internet is a global group of connected networks that allows people to access information and services. It includes the world wide web, electronic mail, file transfer protocol(FTP), internet relay chat(IRC) and USENET(user network news services).

It was in 1991, when the first website was developed in India. Since then, the web development industry has never looked back. Intelligence combined with determination, form the base of the web industry. In 1995, internet access to India was restricted to a few major cities and everything was in the hands of the government. At that time only VSNL provided internet connectivity which was erratic and there was very little bandwidth. Indian users paid US$2 per hour and leased lines were available at over $2000 per month for a 24kpbs line. As a result there were barely 150000 internet connections in India.

None of this dampened the enthusiasm of dozens of entrepreneurs who jumped into the fray. There people like Ajit Balakrishnan( , Rajesh Jain( and Haresh Tibrewala and Sanjay Mehta( who gave into the lure of a networked world.

What made things easier was the availability was the availability of money to setup internet businesses. Many foreign venture capital firms had set up shops in India. By 2000, positive investor sentiment about the net was fuelling the growth of all kinds of websites- marriages, games, gossip, work, cooking, working women and so on. Journalists quit their jobs for internet companies that paid them three times than what they were receiving plus a fancy designation. A plain reporter could become “head of content” in a website selling plumbing pipes or office stationery. By 2000, almost all popular companies had their websites and many dodged in fear of being left behind. There was no big crash in India but the ‘dot com crash’ affected the market. It was about bloated valuations and share prices of internet companies finally falling to reflect the companies- many non revenue generating companies had hitched the ride on the back of the investors who were supposed to know better. The venture capital sentiment turned against the internet companies and finally the flow of capital dried up. Dozens of web businesses disappeared overnight or ran out of funds. And the ones who survived did so either because they were solid businesses to start with or because they changed their business models.

There has been an amazing increase in the extension to the basic web production in the last few years. Use of still graphics, animated graphics, has increased remarkably. Web has become more interesting with the arrival of 3 D technology of VRML(Virtual Reality Mark up Land page) The `cost of developing a website has become very cheap. There are many web development systems available to the public free of charge to help in development of this industry. Websites like Facebook, Twitter has already started showing high popularity in the field of communication & social-networking. The increasing trend of matrimonial and dating sites have led people browse more and more in these sites. Sites like gives updates of all the eligible jobs and through that people end up in a suitable company. Along with online buying in sites like snapdeal, another concept of selling your used products have come up in which people can sell their undesirable products and earn some revenue. OLx is one such example which has gained a lot of popularity by extensive advertising. The very famous line “OLx p bech do” was seen being used by social media users. It has been estimated that 14% of the advertising revenue is spent on online advertising.

As per a Study done by Nielsen---
20 million people look for job openings every month.
Linked in has more than 9 million users in India.
21 million users in India use matrimonial and dating sites to find their partners.
54 million people check online reviews of brands before buying.
60 million people want information of various brands via internet.
10 million are aware of the brands that are there on social media.

India's internet--
• 2% - Number of rural Indians Using the internet.
• 25% - Growth in Indian internet users in India over the past 12 months.
• 59% - Number of Indians who only access the internet via mobile devices.

What Indians do online--
• 3 hours - Average time an Indian net user spends on social media.
• 13m - Number of Indians registered on matrimonial or dating sites.
• 70% of Indian internet users who watch online videos.
(Source: wearesocial)

Poor Internet connectivity, but phenomenal mobile growth
The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India estimates that there will be an additional 200 million new mobile subscribers in the coming year. According to research aggregated by, there are more than 898 million mobile subscribers in India, 292 million of these living in rural areas.

The same data showed that 346 million Indian mobile users had subscribed to data packages, with more than half of all internet users in the country accessing the web via their mobile phone.The increase in uptake of 3G and 2G services in India will also help get more people online. However, there are still issues getting this kind of connectivity into remote areas.

Therefore, we see that internet as an industry has developed to a great extent in India. The new advertisements of mobile phones showing not only the youth but also the old people being attracted to games and other services that a cell phone offers also contributes to the number of people accessing internet via phone.


In India the web is now established as a mass market media channel for the wealthy. Email has become a mass market media channel for office workers and professional classes.

Mobile (for SMS) is a mass market media channel across many demographics, but while mobile use is very high, mobile devices and the web will not properly converge until late 2010. The main changes in internet access have happened in the last five years and the internet has become an essential part of office life, and plays a key role in many homes. The number of people with access continues to rise, but so too does the time they spend online. Broadband access is growing fast, but the number of home connections lags behind comparable markets; however although the number of connections is low, a large number of people in high-end demographics have access. Significant infrastructure problems remain, creating a high cost for access compared to average wage rates.

The growth of internet use in India is attracting the focus of global brands, as well as changing the way national firms market themselves. The changes have been fast, and today to reach upmarket and professional audiences the internet has to be a core part of the strategy.