Showing posts with label Reporting/Editing. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Reporting/Editing. Show all posts

Tuesday, 28 March 2017

Radio: Writing, Production Stages, Equipments and Programmes


Radio: Programmes, Writing, Production Stages and Equipments
Electronic media of communication bring into our homes audio and video signals in the form of various programmes. These programmes, which come on air as sound or both picture and sound, are either live or are already recorded or shot, processed, and transmitted. Electronic media viz. television, radio, and film (or motion picture) shares the following attributes:
Immediacy: These media can present topical, contemporary material live to the audience immediately.
Impermanence: Programme’s brought by these media are perishable images and sounds.
Diversity: They bring a variety, of programme material, which appeals a wide range of audiences. '
Flexibility: Material can be recorded edited, and duplicated for multiple playbacks.
In this lesson, we shall discuss about the basic aspects of radio Programme production.


The content this lesson shall be presented as follows:
  • Radio production formats
  • Equipments for radio production
  • Stages of radio programme production
  • Types of radio programmes
  • Writing for radio


Many radio programmes are live. Some programmes on radio are recorded first and broadcast later. Some programmes are studio based, while others are recorded on outside locations. Here we shall discuss about a few different varieties of radio production formats:
LIVE on RECORDED RADIO PROGRAMMES: The programmes on radio and television can be live, pre-recorded or a combination of both. The nature of production calls for whether a programme will be produced live or recorded in advance and used later.
Live production involves the risk of production errors, as there are no "second chances". It has to be right the first time, which is the only time. However, live production is cheaper than recorded production techniques and sometimes easier and quicker.
Recorded productions allow supervision and control over quality. In this method, first recording of programmes is done. Editing and postproduction are done at a later time. This is an attempt at enhancement to further refine production value and quality while shooting. This can also combine with live production method. Portions or segments of programme can be recorded, edited and processed in advance and incorporated into a studio production using live talent.
STUDIO OR REMOTE (OUTSIDE ON LOCATION): Programmes can he produced within the controlled environment of an indoor studio which otters the required settings of a programme. Studio settings otter personnel control, light control, temperature control, sufficient power supply and access to supplementary production personnel, equipment accessories and spare parts and even telephones and change rooms.
Production can also be done at a temporary remote location. A unique setting can be achieved by thoughtful selection, planning and full use of a remote outside location. The realism and detail required for the quality and success of a production can also be obtained. However, in such a situation some production requirements, such as extensive lighting or elaborate sets are eliminated.
A combination of studio and remote production is also possible. Most newscasts combine anchors in the studio with reporters in the field. The anchor introduces a story from the studio and the reporter provides the details from the field.


Audio production can be carried out in many ways depending on the types and source of programmes. Local live production employs station's own announcers or newscasters locally and play records and tapes, which they themselves own. Live-assist production is one way where stations retain local announcers and disc jockeys as the backbone of the programme and uses syndicated programming, such as reels of taped (prerecorded) music and satellite delivered music services.

Friday, 24 March 2017

Broadcasting of Radio and TV: Strengths and Weaknesses

What is the difference between radio and TV
Broadcasting: AIR v/s Doordarshan


Radio and Television have their own characteristics. UNESCO has enumerated the following strengths and weaknesses of radio and television


It has imaginative potential to listener to add his/her own visual interpretation
  It requires a fully developed radio network.
Receivers are relatively cheap and portable
It is a non-visual medium
It is relatively inexpensive in production terms
Trained personnel are required.
As an entertainment medium, it is psychologically acceptable
Knowledge of local languages is essential
As a major news source it is widely heard and accepted. It has massive, immediate distribution.

it is a visual medium which allows for a creative production approach
It requires a fully developed TV network and electric supply
As an entertainment medium, it is very acceptable psychologically.
TV Receivers are expensive
As a major news source, it is widely seen and accepted.
It is expensive, both in production and utilization, unless used extensively.
It has immediate distribution which can be massive.
It requires highly trained production and operational personal.
Historically speaking, Marconi started radio broadcasting in 1896 with the invention of first wireless telegraph link. It took ten years since then for the first demonstration of radio broadcasting to establish but it was hard to distinguish words from music.
Another successful demonstration took place from the Eiffel Tower in Paris in 1908. A New York Station transmitted the first radio news bulletin in 1916 on the occasion of the election of US President. By 1927, broadcasting services were started as a major medium of information.
Radio broadcasting in India began as a private venture in 1923 and 1924, when three radio clubs were established in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras (now Chennai). The Radio Club broadcast the first radio programme in India in June 1923. The daily broadcasts of 2 to 3 hours consisted mainly of music and talks. These stations had to close down in 1927 for lack of sufficient financial support.
It was followed by the setting up a Broadcasting Service that began broadcasting in India in July 1927 on an experimental basis at Bombay and a month later at Calcutta under an agreement between the Government of India and a private company called the Indian Broadcasting Company Ltd. Faced with a widespread public outcry against the closure of the IBC, the Government acquired its assets and constituted the Indian Broadcasting Service under the Department of Labour and Industries. Since then, broadcasting in India has remained under Government control.
In 1936, a radio station was commissioned in Delhi. In the same year, the Indian Broadcasting Service was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and a new signature tune was added. The Delhi station became the nucleus of broadcasting at the national level.
All India Radio has come a long way since June 1936. When India became Independent, the AIR network had only six stations at Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lucknow and Tiruchirapalli with 18 transmitters six on the medium wave and the remaining on short wave, Radio listening on medium wave was confined to the urban elite of these cities.
Radio broadcasting assumed considerable importance with the outbreak of World War II. By 1939, the entire country was covered by a short-wave service and the programme structure underwent a change to meet wartime contingencies. During this period, news and political commentaries were introduced and special broadcasts were made for the people on the strategic northeastern and northwestern borders.
After independence, the broadcast scenario has dramatically changed with 198 broadcasting centers, including 74 local radio stations, covering more than 97.3 per cent of the country‘s population. Presently, it broadcasts programmes in a number of languages throughout the day. The function in of All India Radio is unparalleled in sense that it is perhaps the only news organizations, which remain active, round-the-clock and never sleeps.
Mostly the broadcasting centers are full-fledged stations with a network of medium wave, short wave and FM transmission. Besides, the external services Division of AIR are a link with different regions of world through its programmes in as many as 24 languages for about 72 hours a day.


Television began in India way back in 1959 as a part of All India Radio when it was formally commissioned on September 15 as an experimental service. Its aim was to promote social education and general awareness. It was not until Mrs. Indira Gandhi was in charge of the information and Broadcasting Ministry that television was commissioned as a regular daily service from 15th August 1965. Now television transmitters carry Doordarshan signals to almost three fourth of the country's population.

Tuesday, 21 February 2017

Linear editing Techniques

Linear editing-

Linear editing

Linear video editing is a video editing post-production process of selecting, arranging and modifying images and sound in a predetermined, ordered sequence. Regardless of whether it was captured by a video camera, tapeless camcorder, or recorded in a television studio on a video tape recorder (VTR) the content must be accessed sequentially. This is the post production editing that follows studio programme which is a little bit more than inserting corrections and adding specially filmed sequences through the whole range of videotape formats using domestic equipments like VHS or Hi- 8. It is edited off-line which is done by a VT editor.

1. Cut and splice method-  the magnetic tape on which both sound and picture is recorded can be cut across and joined in another tape in a way somewhat similar to the splicing of a cinefilm. In the video tape case, the junction is however a butt-join held together by an adhesive tape instead of the overlapped, cemented join with cinefilm.
But no pictures are directly visible on the tape and in order to identify camera shots, the tape has to run on a normal speed machine. The sound-track can be examined on a slow speed. Once the required picture/sound cutting point is found , this is marked on the tape with a felt pencil. This tape is then unlaced from the VTR machine and the ‘magnetic developer ‘pointed into a tape surface.

2. Vision /Sound Displacement-  While recording, the video tape passes from the left hand feed spool to the right hand feed spool i.e. it moves from left to right across the front of the machine. The design of the tape deck is such that the sound head stands to the vision of the right head.  As a result, there is a time difference between the arrival of a particular piece of tape at the vision hed and its arrival at the sound head.

3. Sound dubbing over the splice- By the use of this facility, unwanted lip movements on dialogue can be avoided.

4. Sound dubbing over a dialogue splice- This is used to make satisfactory dialogue splices in the middle of dialogue sequences. The process is to re-record one/fourth inch of the first few seconds of the required sound from another tape. This sound is then dubbed as before on to the end of the required sound of the first tape at the same time erasing the already unwanted sound there. This process of transfer of sound to ¼” of the magnetic sound track constitutes the creation of the magnetic recording, enabling this sound to be manipulated independently of the vision.

5. The L-Shaped Cut-   It has been often suggested by the visitors to the video tape area that L-shaped cuts could be mad in the video tape to compensate for the displacement problem, Although such a physical cutting of the tape is quite impracticable, that is what is done in effect by dubbing the incoming sound across the cut. The process of dubbing- across-the-cut need not add much time to the editing but it is a complication that can be avoided by adopting certain procedures in the studio whilst the programme is being originally recorded.

Usage-While computer based Video editing software has been adopted throughout most of the commercial, film, industrial and consumer video industries, linear video tape editing is still commonplace in television station newsrooms for the production of television news, and medium-sized production facilities which haven’t made the capital investment in newer technologies. News departments often still use linear editing because they can start editing tape and feeds from the field as soon as received since no additional time is spent capturing material as is necessary in non-linear editing systems and systems that are able to digitally record and edit simultaneously have only recently become affordable for small operations.

Aesthetics- Although there are many different configurations of linear editing systems, all consist of at least three elements: a playback tape machine, a record tape machine, and an edit controller that operates the two tape machines in synchronization. The edit controller allows the editor to perform basic videotape recorder functions such as playback, record, fast forward, rewind, and search on each machine that is part of the editing system. The editor also uses the edit controller to set in and out back machine, a record machine, and an edit controller, is called a cuts-only system. As its name implies, this type of system is capable only of editing cut transitions between shots.

Differences between the two systems-  

Working on a nonlinear editing system is like working with a sophisticated word processor. Using a computer screen and a mouse you can randomly cut and past segments and move them around until you are satisfied with the result.
Working on a linear editing system is a bit like using a typewriter to type a term paper; you need to assemble everything in the proper sequence as you go along. After it's all on paper (or in this case recorded), adding, deleting or rearranging things can be a major problem.
With nonlinear editing the video and audio segments are not permanently recorded as you go along as they are in linear editing. The edit decisions exist in computer memory as a series of internal digital markers that tell the computer where to look for segments on the hard disk.
This means that at any point you can instantly check your work and make adjustments. It also means that you can easily experiment with audio and video possibilities.

Non-Linear Editing Techniques

Non-linear editing and their aesthetics, techniques and usage.

Non-linear editing techniques

Introduction- Editing- 

The editing process is basic to the construction of every programme. It is the editing which constructs the narrative or flow of every programme by creating sequences into a structured shape. Editing decisions guide the audience through the movement of sound and images that make up an evening of television.

The aim is to create a rich but seamless flow, but every time there is a transition from one shot to another, a decision must be made on whether the change must be smooth, imperceptible to the audience or whether it will jolt them into attention. Editing conventions vary between genres, grouped loosely into those in which the logic of the programme is carried by action and dialogue, such as a drama or a documentary. Dziga Vertov argued that completely new meanings may be constructed through the rhythms of the editing and the juxtaposition of shots which are in themselves really meaningless.

The time and conditions available for editing vary enormously. Editing can be described both as a major art form and the most routine of technical tasks.

Technologies and contexts- 

Although the effect may be similar, television can take place in four very different contexts.

1. Real- time vision mixing-This is use for a programme originating from a studio or from an Outside Broadcast. It may be done from a studio gallery provided with equipment for production switching usually known as vision mixing.

2. Videotape editing- This includes the post-production editing that follows a studio programme which is usually little more than inserting corrections and adding especially filmed sequences on domestic equipment like VHS or Hi- 8.

3. Film editing- This is carried out in a cutting room, using specialized equipment, including a synchronizer and a Steenbeck motorized editing table.

4. Non- linear editing- Rushes are scanned into a computer where the images are stored as digital code on a hard disc.

Video Editing Software- 

Deciding which video editing software to use is not easy. There is a huge range available, from very basic applications such as Windows Movie Maker to professional packages such as Final Cut Pro, ULead MediaStudio and Adobe Premiere.

For most people, the main constraint is money. Good editing software is expensive and often requires a high-priced computer to run effectively.

How Editing Software Works

Most general-purpose editing software does three things:
1. Capture
2. Edit
3. Output

This means the software controls the capturing (recording) of the footage, provides a way to edit the footage, and allows the finished product to be output to a recording device such as a VCR or DVD.

If you like, you can use separate software for capture or output, but initially you will probably find it more convenient to use the same program for all tasks.

Non linear editing-  

Digital computer technology has brought us full circle, back to many of the techniques familiar from film than video editing. Rushes are scanned into a computer where the images are stored as digital code on a hard disc. Each shot is logged, located by its time code numbers, so that it can be played back instantly. The images and soundtracks are displayed on a large computer screen and the editor works with a keyboard and a mouse. The computer can jump between any shot or part of a shot so that sequences can be speedily constructed and reconstructed on the screen. The manufacturers refer to the system as a “media composer” as it brings together video, audio and graphics, rather in the manner of CD-ROM. Video effects are available, enabling one picture to burst through another o causing images to fold or swirl, and there are many other facilities. The sound track can be edited on the same equipment, placing it in relation to the picture and manipulating several sound inputs at once. When the off- line edit is completed, an Edit Decision List is prepared which then goes to an on-line suite together with the original tapes.

Editors working with non-linear systems say that it gives greater freedom to experiment with different ways of cutting a sequence, as well as the processes are speeded up.

New developments include the ability for cameras to record straight onto a computer memory which can then be brought directly into the editing room, avoiding the need to scan in the tapes, and an improvement in quality which means that broadcast quality results may be produced, doing away with the need for on-line editing.

Techniques of non-linear editing-   

The work of editing controls the flow of a programme. Yet successful continuity editing erases the evidence of its own operations by maintaining an illusion of continuous movements between the shots within a sequence and making a transition from one shot to the next as smooth as possible. It follows a series of conventions which achieve an illusion of reality. If the conventions are broken, the viewer will experience a jolt in perception and the illusion may be broken.

1. Continuity editing-   
An impression of continuity depends partly on the imagination and expectations of the viewer.  For example- A man climbs the steps to the front of a house and enters. We cut to an interior as he comes into the hall-way. These shots may be, and in most cases, probably are shots oftwo totally different houses or of a location exterior and studio interior. Even so, the viewer ‘reads’ it as the same house and as a continuous action. As well as temporal continuity, editing links action and reaction. The juxtaposition of two different shots leads the viewer to speculate on the relationship between the two. For example- In the 1920s Russian filmmaker and teacher, Leo Kuleshov conducted editing experiments by taking same shots of the actor, Mosjoukin with different angles like “now with a plate of soup, now with a prison gate, now with images suggesting an erotic situation.

If editing together shots of two people walking in the same direction, or one person chasing another, the two should consistently move either from right to left or vice versa, unless a bridging shot or a cutaway breaks the sequencing. Cutting away from a speaker wearing glasses , then back to the same speaker without wearing glasses will feel discontinuous, unless there is a shot of the glasses being removed. The editor must search the frame for other changes between shots including jackets that had been done up suddenly becoming open, objects and people suddenly appearing and disappearing, vases of flowers apparently jumping around into different positions on a table. In a conversation, cutting between say a news presenter and their interviewee, if A is facing right, B must be facing left or else they may appear to be looking in the same direction rather than facing each other.

2.  Relational editing-  
It is the form of editing which build up the rhythm of a programme through parallels and comparisons. For example- constructing an alternation between two or more different narratives for dramatic effect. In one episode  of Cracker, 1995, two meals were intercut. The interrelation between the meals is known to the audience but to none of the other characters. The complex dynamics of the intercut dinners makes each into a commentary on the other as well as drawing attention to protagonist as the pivot action.

3.  Analytic editing
It is the editing in which the sequence of images is constructed to follow an argument rather than a narrative. Sometimes the flow of the images matches the flow of narrating voice on the sound track and makes no sense if seen alone. Sometimes the images create a visual dynamic of their own.

4. Montage editing- 
A technique which is built up through the juxtaposition and rhythm of images and sounds. This may be independent of narrative or argument, as in some avant-garde film and video making or it may act to illuminate or enhance the narrative or argument.

Usages-   A multimedia computer for non-linear editing of video may have a video capture card to capture analog video and/or a FireWire connection to capture digital video from a DV camera, with its video editing software. Modern web-based editing systems can take video directly from a camera phone over a GPRS or 3G mobile connection, and editing can take place through a web browser interface, so, strictly speaking, a computer for video editing does not require any installed hardware or software beyond a web browser and an internet connection.
Various editing tasks can then be performed on the imported video before it is exported to another medium, or MPEG encoded for transfer to a DVD. 

Aesthetics- Non-linear editing gives editors much greater control over the available footage, with greatly increased abilities to access individual shots and manipulate them more easily in complex editing constructions.